Introgression of Pest and Disease Resistance Genes from Wild Species into Cultivated Peanut Lines and Varieties


Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia on behalf of the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service and University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.

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Southeast (GA, FL, AL)

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Jackson (Scott)

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Root-knot nematodes and late leaf spot are a very damaging to the peanut crop. Resistance to late leaf in peanut cultivars is limited, and currently only a single source of resistance to root-knot is available (originating from the wild species A. cardenasii, and available in cultivars like Webb, and H/O Tifguard). There are serious concerns that this root-knot resistance could be broken. In this project we investigated new sources of resistance to root-knot nematode and late leaf spot from the wild species A. stenosperma. This was done by studying plants derived from a cross involving peanut (A. hypogaea) and A. stenosperma. 
Peanut has two sets of chromosomes that originally derived from two wild species, one contributing "A­chromosomes" and the other "B-chromosomes". A. stenosperma has only A-chromosomes, therefore to be able to cross with peanut, it needed to first be crossed with a B-chromosome species (in this case a species called A. batizocoi was used). These hybridizations were carried out before the beginning of the project. 
In this project, a population of 230 plants specially structured for genetic analysis, from the cross A. hypogaea x (A. batizocoi x A. stenosperma) was tested for resistance to root-knot nematode and late leaf spot using controlled quantifiable methods. This information will be used together with DNA-typing information and genetic mapping to identify chromosomal regions that confer resistance and to develop molecular markers to aid in the production of new resistant peanut varieties. 

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