By Caroline Young , MS, RD, LD, RYT
From our social media feeds to morning news shows, there’s nutrition advice thrown at us every day.
The truth is, nutrition science is constantly evolving, which is why it is important to seek information backed by rigorous science.
Recently, diets like Whole30 caution about foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids, like peanuts, peanut butter, seeds and liquid vegetable oils (e.g., corn, sunflower and safflower oils). And greater emphasis is typically placed on benefits of eating omega-3 fatty acids.
Indeed, omega-3s, which are found in foods like fish, canola and soybean oils, and flax and chia seeds, are a dietary necessity. They are crucial for things like vision health, and brain health and development 
However, we must remember omega-3s are one of the two essential fatty acids – the other one being omega-6s. We must consume both types through our diet (which makes them essential), since our bodies can’t make them on their own.
Here’s the Science-Based Truth
Omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids share similar traits:
- They are both essential, meaning you must get them through your diet.
- They are both polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are “good” fats.
- They are both found in everyday foods (i.e. peanuts, peanut butter, seeds, fish, vegetable oils).
- They both provide energy for the body.
- They both play a role in hormone health and regulation.
- They both help regulate inflammation.
- They both support healthy skin.
So Why Have Omega-6s Gotten the Bad Rap?
The reasons used to suggest omega-6s should be reduced or avoided is based on inconclusive science. Since omega-6s may also promote inflammation and some diseases include inflammation as a risk factor, it has been speculated that reducing omega- 6 intake means reducing disease risk.
However, there is not scientific evidence to support omega-6's role in causing chronic disease to warrant avoiding them. In fact, there is research to support its role in disease prevention and overall health (after all, they are essential fatty acids!).
Research is showing beneficial relationships between omega-6 consumption and diseases. One 2018 study of more than 2,400 participants who were followed for over 24 years, found an association of a higher intake of linoleic acid (a type of omega-6 fatty acids found in foods like peanuts and vegetable oils) with reduced risk of death from all causes of death, including multiple diseases. Of the participants, about half of them died from various diseases, including heart disease, dementia, Alzheimer disease, liver disease and respiratory-related diseases.
This study’s limitations include its use of a specific study population, of white men ages 42 to 60 living in Finland, which means the findings may not be generalizable to everyone. Additionally, this study was not a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the gold standard in research, so a cause-and-effect relationship between omega-6 consumption and reduced mortality from disease was not found.
What About the Omega Ratio?
Some researchers propose that an imbalance of omega 6s and omega3s—the omega 6/omega 3 ratio—may play a part in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. But the optimal ratio—if any—has not been defined, and is therefore inconclusive.
Long Story Short
Science continues to show that omega-3s and omega-6s should be placed on equal ground. If we eat a balanced, diverse diet of mostly nourishing foods -- including good fats like peanuts, seeds, fish and vegetable oils -- and our bodies will thank us.
 Omega-3 Fatty Acids. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/. Updated March 2, 2018. Accessed Nov. 15, 2021.
 Virtanen J, Wu J, Voutilainen S, Mursu J, Tuomainen TP. Serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of death: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107:427-435.