Institution:Texas A&M AgriLife Extension
Project Fiscal Year:2013
Report Received Date:
Project NPB Budget:$35,000
Cultivar selection is one of the most important management decisions peanut producers can make and Texas is unique in that all four peanut market-types (runner, spanish, valencia and virginia) can be grown in the state. Composition of the types of peanuts grown has changed from a predominantly runner market to a more equally allotted system. As producers grow new cultivars or different market-types, information on relative performance becomes more important. Field studies were conducted in the High and Rolling Plains, as well as Central and South Texas comparing various cultivars or advanced breeding lines of the different market-types. Overall, yields were lowest for Valencia-C and the spanish varieties evaluated. Yields of several virginia cultivars were equal to or greater than those of many of the standard runner cultivars. High yields with premium contracts being offered should lead to sustained or increased acres throughout the state. Additional studies were conducted to evaluate performance of reduced seeding rates for the different peanut types. Peanut plants are indeterminant and have an inherent ability to compensate. Overall, similar trends were observed among the four market-types evaluated, where yields for seeding rates of 2 to 6 seed per foot were similar and only differences between 1 and 6 seed per foot were observed. Weed control is another one of the most important management decisions producers can make. Numerous studies were conducted to evaluate herbicide efficacy of a number of different weed species, response of peanut market-types to various herbicides and the additive effect of using surfactants. Several weed management programs provided excellent control of troublesome weeds including Palmer amaranth (pigweed), Texas panicum, and Smellmelon. Control of yellow nutsedge control was variable with many of the postemergence herbicides evaluated. Tolerance to high rates of the preemergence herbicides Fierce and Zidua was observed on all four market-types with slight injury occurring at the highest rates evaluated. Early applications of the postemergence herbicide ET resulted in relatively high levels of injury; however, no differences in yield among application rates or timings were observed. Studies similar to these will be conducted in 2014.